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The Great Indian Banking Reforms: An Analysis of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC)


Finance & Banking  •  10 Oct, 2023  •  53,435 Views  •  ⭐ 5.0

Written by Anand Swami


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India's banking sector, once marred by rising Non-Performing Assets (NPAs), witnessed a transformative change with the introduction of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) in 2016. This legislation aimed to streamline the insolvency resolution process and bolster credit markets. But what has been its true impact on the banking sector's health, particularly regarding NPAs? Let's dive into an analysis.

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Historical Context

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Before the IBC, India's insolvency landscape was fragmented across multiple legislations, causing delays and inefficiencies. The SARFAESI Act, Debt Recovery Tribunals (DRT), and the Companies Act were just a few of the mechanisms used, but they lacked coordination. Such an environment impeded the recovery of bad loans, causing NPAs to balloon, thereby weakening confidence in the financial system.

Financial stakeholders often found themselves entangled in lengthy legal battles due to the absence of a comprehensive resolution system. As a result, many distressed assets remained trapped in limbo, contributing to the stagnation of capital.

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IBC: A Unified Framework

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The IBC brought a consolidated framework for insolvency resolution. Establishing a time-bound process for corporate insolvency, it prioritized creditors' rights and promoted ease of doing business. The National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) and the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) were appointed as the adjudicating bodies, ensuring a streamlined and efficient handling of insolvency cases.

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